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Different musical instruments - part2

Discussion in 'Carnatic and Hindustani tutorials' started by administrator, Jan 3, 2010.

  1. administrator

    administrator Administrator

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    Rudra Veena
    A string instrument with two large gourds.

    Saaz-E-Kashmiri
    A stringed instrument belonging to the bowed variety used in Kashmir as an accompaniment to the singing.

    Santoor

    A stringed instrument of Persian origin having 100 strings of wire and is played with two sticks. It was also called &quotKatyayana Veena" or &quotSatatantri Veena".

    Sarangi
    A fretless stringed instrument played with a bow, used in Hindustani music. See here for more information.

    Saraswati Veena
    An ancient stringed instrument which is referred to in ancient literature and found in the sculptures. It is believed that sage Narada used this instrument. It is also known as Kachchapi Veena.

    Sarod
    A popular plucked stringed instrument in Northern India. It is also called Sarrawat. It is referred to as Gajamukha Veena in the ancient literature. The belly is made from one block of wood hollowed, covered by a parchment and has a fretless finger board.

    Sitar
    The sitar is the invention of Amir Shusru, the famous poet and singer attached to the Court of Sultan Alauddin Khilju of Delhi (1295-1315). This is the most popular instrument in Northern India.

    Sarod
    A popular plucked stringed instrument in Northern India. It is also called Sarrawat. It is referred to as Gajamukha Veena in the ancient literature. The belly is made from one block of wood hollowed, covered by a parchment and has a fretless finger board.

    Swaramandala
    Swaramandala is an ancient instrument. The resonator is of wood and is trapezoid or quadrilateral in shape. It has a number of parallel strings.

    Tambura
    A drone instrument with four to eight strings and only two basic notes of differing octaves. It has a gourd at the bottom and is played vertically.

    Tuba-phone
    An instrument belonging to the variety of Idiophones, made of iron tubes of different sizes for different notes and octaves.


    Bhangam, Ubhangam, and Mondai
    These three instruments belong to the percussion group, are made of clay, and are referred to in ancient Tamil literature.

    * Bhangam
    * Mondai
    * Ubhangam


    Brahma talam

    Metallic cymbals used in temple rituals.

    Budubudukkai
    An hour-glass shaped drum with a string tied to the center and a knot at the other end of the string. When the drum is rattled, the knotted end strikes the two faces alternately.

    Chandra Pirai
    Chandra Pirai (of the shape of the moon) is a percussion instrument used in Mariamman temples and in temples of village deities.

    Chenda
    This is a percussion instrument of Kerala and is used in Kathakali dance. It is also used in the temple rituals.

    Chengala
    A gong, with circular plates of metal struck with a light stick.

    Chinese drums
    Drums of snake skin.

    Damaram
    A conical drum.

    Damaru
    An hour-glass shaped drum with a string tied to the center and a knot at the other end of the string. When the drum is rattled, the knotted end strikes the two faces alternately.

    Daph
    Daph or dep is a circular drum and is stretched with buffalo hide over the frame on one side.

    Dasari tappattai

    A single-faced open drum with a skin stretched over one side.

    Davandai

    An hour-glass shaped drum. It is played by striking with a stick.

    Dolak
    A horizontal drum played on the sides with both hands.

    Dolki
    A barrel-shaped drum.

    Ghatam
    A red ceramic pot played with the hands, the mouth of the instrument against the abdomen of the artist.

    Gummati
    Gummati is a kind of pot drum used in the districts of Andhra Pradesh by the rural folk to provide a rhythmic accompaniment during the singing of the ballads. The instrument is held in a horizontal position and played.

    Idakka
    An hour-glass shaped drum, its unique character being a movable resonator. Idakka is used in Kerala temples near the sanctum sanctorum and in group along with other percussion instruments in Panchavadyam (5 instruments).

    Ilattalam
    A pair of metallic cymbal used in Kathakali plays.

    Jalatarangam cups
    Porcelain (previously metallic, gave rise to gamelan) drums struck with cane and bamboo sticks. In ancient times it was called udaka vadyam (water-instrument).

    Jalra
    A pair of small metallic cymbals.

    Jamidika
    This is a drum with a slightly barrel-shaped or bucket-shaped resonator and open at one end. The closed end is covered with a thin parchment. At its centre is tied a string which goes through the inside of the instrument. This is tied to a stick at the other end. This drum is used as an accompaniment while singing ballads.

    Kanaka tappattai
    A single-faced open drum with skin stretched over a circular ring of thin strips of bamboo.

    Kanjhari
    Two small pieces, used along with the kanjhari which is being used as an Upatala vadya in the present day South Indian music concerts, are believed to be the earlier shapes of kanjhari. The kanjhari is a percussion instrument with a skin stretched over one side of a cylinder.

    Kanjira
    A single-faced open drum with skin stretched over one side and small cymbals woven into the frame, similar to a tambourine.

    Kavana maddalam
    A miniature mridangam used during the palanquin dance.

    Khol
    A barrel-shaped drum.

    Kidikittu vadyam
    This instrument consists of a pair of conical drums made of jackwood. This is used in the folk dance and nagaswaram concerts in Tamil Nadu. It is played with two sticks. Kirikatti and kinikitti are the other names of this instrument.

    Kudamuzha
    This is a pot drum. Skin is stretched over the mouth of the pot and this skin is held tight by an iron ring through which it is attached and this is fixed to the pot by cord and ropes passing all round the pot.

    Kundalam
    A conical drum.

    Kuzhi talam
    Metallic cymbals, smaller than the Brahma talam.

    Morsing
    The Jew's harp. It is used for percussion and played with the mouth and fingers.

    Mridangam
    A South Indian barrel-shaped percussion instrument played horizontally on both sides (two-headed) with the hands. The drums are stretched skin with a central circle of black paste that gives a different playing surface. It is used in most Carnatic concerts as the main accompaniment to both vocal and instrumental performances. Also called sangita maddalam.

    Nagara
    A conical drum with a huge semi-spherical resonator.

    Narakunda
    A kind of pot drum with skin covering one side.

    Nattuva talam
    A pair of metallic cymbals in which one plate is of steel or iron and the other is of bronze.

    Om Bell (Pranava Ghanta)
    A bell made of panchalohas presented by the famous South Indian cinema actor and musician late Sri. V. Nagaiah.

    Pambai
    This is a pair of cylindrical drums. It is played with two sticks.

    Pakhawaj
    A barrel-shaped drum.

    Pushkaram
    This three faced drum is a rare variety of the instruments belonging to the percussion group.

    Segandi
    A gong. A circular plate of metal is struck with a light stick.

    Semmakalam
    A gong of a circular plate of metal struck with the stick of the calotropis plant.

    Sanna udal
    An hour-glass shaped drum.

    Suddha maddalam
    A barrel-shaped drum longer than the mridangam, used exclusively in temple rituals and Kathakali plays. Its right face has more black paste than the mridangam, resulting in a deep, resonant tone.

    Surya Pirai
    Surya Pirai (of the shape of the Sun) is a percussion instrument used in Maiamma temples and in temmples of village deities. This is also called Surya Mandalam. A thin parchment is strained over the iron ring of the instrument.

    Tabla and Baya
    These two instruments take place of the mridangam in northern and central India. Played horizontally with the fingers and hands, the pair together generate a wide tonal range and harmonic qualities.

    Talam
    Metallic cymbals, smaller than the Brahma talam.

    Tambattam
    A single-faced open drum with skin stretched over one side.

    Tanti Panai
    This is a pot drum with a metallic string inside, used by the rural folk. A piece of goat skin is strained over the mouth of the pot. At the centre of the skin is a small hold through which the metallic ring in the centre of a button projects inside. To this ring the string inside is tied.

    Tatappalagai

    A single-faced open drum with a circular plate of resonant wood stretched over the frame.

    Tavil
    A horizontal two-faced drum with hempen hoops at the ends.

    Timila
    A drum with an hour-glass or mortar shaped body.

    Tumbaknari
    A Kashmiri folk percussion instrument. A drum with mud (pot) body, the bottom covered by skin and the mouth kept open.

    Udukkai

    This is the hour-glass shaped drum laced with twine. A thin parchment is strained over the two faces. Right along the middle, passing over the twine threads, is a thick tape, the squeeze of which tightens the braces, resulting in the sharpening of the tone.

    Urumi
    Drum with two heads. The milky juice of a plant is rubbed over the center of the right head, and when this head is stroked, it gives a characteristic tone.

    RedCedar Splinters Veena

    An experimental veena, the bowl or Kudam made of splinters of redcedar wood, entirely different from the traditionally manufactured veena, developed by the Development Centre for Musical Instruments, Madras.

    Ravanastram
    Ravanastram is believed to be the earliest of bowed instruments consisting of a bamboo stick as body to which two wooden pegs are fixed for tuning the strings and a half hollowed coconut shell as belly covered with a dried skin.
     
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